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Epidemie and ryot

Cholera epidemie and ryot uprising

During the years 1830 and 1831 many people died because of cholera at the east of Slovakia.

When the cholera appeared in neighbor Poland, it was clear that this disease will not stop and will assault east of Slovakia too.

That times a village cemetery was not big enough and people died of cholera were buried at place Olšinky, next to road to a village Viaz.

It was a weak harvest in the year 1830 and people were starving and so a danger of the cholera spread was strenghtened a lot.

The atmosphere of a fear and suspect was enhanced by the Košice occurence of forced eating of a anti-cholera powder to kill somebody. This message flew quickly all-around Spiš region.

A market in Košice took place twice a week and was visited by people from Kluknava.

The atmosphere of growing mistrust against Landlords were even for such a goodwill deeds as a giving of an abundant grains for free to a poor peasants, or a bargain sale of a food. Because the sale outside of a district was blocked due to isolation precautions.

People misunderstood this deeds of help and saw all as an intention to poison them.

In the village Kluknava this suspect was strong from the very beginning of cholera.

First death due to cholera was July 29th of the year 1831.

Lady countess Anna Csaky based on the order of a district doctor from Gelnica let to sprinkle a bleaching powder into a wells. The villagers thought that its the poison and a seed of uprising grew quickly, as they were not able to understand any explanation.

Between Kluknava and Richnava a judge Eduard Phansmid ordered to build a desinfection stand and got to dig a big hole to bury a dead. This precautions were too early as there were nobody sick or dead at that moment.

Nor Phanshmid explanation, what is the bleaching powder used for, did not calm the situation.

The villagers said that landlord custodian and steward are going to poison them.

Jan Rychnavský, a tithing man of Kluknava (reeve) and a leader of uprising spoke like this:

Lady Csaky is stealing us all she can and her landlord leader – custodian Broško is as bad as an evil. A rules said we must work for landlord 52 days a year with a animals or 104 days without horses, bring a pile of wood and give a 1/10 from a harvest.

A peasants must to work whenever a landlord custodian calls for them. Before the uprising started the tithing spent some time in Zemplin county, where the uprising had their roots. He died of cholera two days before the uprising started in Kluknava.

After his death a new leader of uprising became a tithing man of village Richnava Juraj Harman. Countess Csaky were restraining out of social life because of death of her husband... ................................(please did not find the name of count Csaky, here we need to fill his name) but she were informed by the priest, dean Klein, which used to give a service in the castle chapel.

Peasants were getting ready for an attack. They all gathered in front of the deacon house next to a church armed with a axes, scythes and a few guns. They wanted not to get poisoned with the anti-cholera powder and believed that landlord custodian will force them to eat the powder.

After the priest speech, they became a bit calmed but even after that went to attack the castle.

They did not manage to get into, so went back to the dean house and forced lady Anna Csaky to hand over a keys of the house. Went there and have found the custodian Juraj, his son Jozef Broško and a steward František Groch in the private castle chapel and killed them at the courtyard.

To stop the uprising a group of soldiers from Levoèa were sent to Kluknava. Three of the rebels were hanged October 5th 1831: Jan Hamrak, Juraj Matjaško and Jan Kubov. The execution took place, where is now a House of culture, a house at that place where court and execution was held had a name “Bercik”

The people hate, malignance and a lack of ability to understand any explanation took six human lifes.

Countess Lady Anna Csaky were given a mercy and tithing Juraj Harman gave over back to her a keys of the castle.

The deacon and doctor managed to escape.

The uprising got slowly calm and tension relieved only after a Spiš bench had sent major Döller with a battalion of soldiers to guard this region.

1571 - 1599 Kluknava
Slovak republic

GPS 48.920934, 20.939019

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